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Date of Award

Spring 2023


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Date Available to Non-EWU Users


Document Type

Thesis: EWU Only

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS) in Wellness and Movement Sciences


Wellness and Movement Sciences


In recent years, the use of supplements to aid resistance training performance has increased, particularly through the consumption of multi-ingredient pre-workout supplements (MIPS). However, limited research exists regarding the efficacy of MIPS on physiological and psychological performance in resistance-trained females.

PURPOSE: To determine the physiological and psychological performance effects of MIPS compared to a placebo and caffeine-only supplement in resistance-trained females.

METHODS: Resistance-trained females (n=10) volunteered for the study. One-repetition maximum (1RM) was established at baseline for leg press (LP) and bench press (BP). A within-groups, double-blind, randomized, and counterbalanced design was used to assign the four supplement drinks (i.e., placebo, caffeine-only, single MIPS dose, and double MIPS dose). Following a progressive-load warm-up, participants completed repetitions to failure at 75% of 1RM for LP and BP. Participants completed questionnaires to assess rating of perceived exertion (RPE), rating of fatigue (ROF), and exercise enjoyment. Data were analyzed using one-way repeated measures ANOVA with an alpha level set at .05. RESULTS: There were no differences in repetitions to failure (LP: p = .44; BP: p = .54), RPE (LP: p = .08; BP: p = .70), ROF (LP: p = .09; BP: p = .86), or exercise enjoyment (LP: p = .67; BP: p = .88) across the four supplements. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that caffeine or MIPS consumption may not delay muscular failure or enhance subjective feelings of exertion in resistance-trained females. Future research should explore timing of MIPS, long-term use, and ingredients to determine the ergogenic benefit for resistance-trained females.