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Date of Award



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Document Type

Thesis: EWU Only

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS) in Physical Education: Sports and Recreation Administration


Physical Education, Health and Recreation

First Advisor

Jon Hammermeister

Second Advisor

Emily Messina

Third Advisor

Robin O'Quinn


"Previous research has shown that First Generation College Students (FGCS) struggle academically when compared to their non-FGCS peers (Bui, 2002). For example, FGCS tend to experience a lack of social, financial and emotional support which contributes to the following student success deficits: 1) lower academic performance, 2) problematic transitions, 3) and poor retention (Majer, 2009; Terenzini et al; 1996). Studies have shown that mental fitness skill (MFS) constructs such as self- efficacy, goal setting, motivation, and resilience are all related to academic success (Hammermeister, Jordan, Briggs, Galm, & Pickering, 2012). This study aimed to explore further the idea that MFS can be of utility to FGCS in their pursuit of academic success. Specifically, this study focused on a curriculum, which intensively immersed each participant in the goal setting process using the "roadmap" model developed by South (2005) as a tool to more effectively prepare for classes, exams, and presentations. A single subject non-experimental design with follow-up member checking was used to validate quantitative results (Creswell, 2007). Individual students improved on a number of targeted MFS variables, self-concepts, study habits, academic motivation, resilience, and ability to set goals. Qualitative results revealed that the course was enjoyed by each student and successful in facilitating positive changes in the participants. The academic version of the roadmap, the trail map©, appears to be a useful tool for FGCS"--Document.


Typescript. Vita.