Date of Award



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May 2020

Document Type





"Research on math anxiety has historically explored cognitive and emotional factors independently. This study attempted to connect these areas of research through the lens of math shame. While discussing a more integrated approach to understanding mathematics anxiety, this research explored math anxiety through a formal validation of the newly developed Math Shame Scale (MSS). Data were collected from 489 volunteers at a regional university in the inland northwestern United States. Online questionnaires completed by the participants were used to assess the validity and reliability of the MSS. The results supported the reliability and validity of two separate scales ofthe MSS, one measuring affective and cognitive experiences of math shame (MSS-ACES) and the other measuring situational experiences of math shame (MSS-SE). The MSS scales demonstrated high internal consistency. Additionally, the MSS-ACES and the MSS-SE correlated with multiple established questionnaires providing evidence of construct validity. Furthermore, principal components analysis largely followed the proposed sections of the MSS assessing affective and cognitive experiences of shame and situational experiences of shame. The validation of the MSS provides support for the concept of math shame, yielding additional avenues for research designed at examining the role of math-specific shame in math anxiety"--Leaf iv.

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